What Are Bowling Balls Made Of: Materials and Manufacturing Insights

What Are Bowling Balls made of - bowlingview
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Bowling is a popular sport enjoyed by people of all ages around the globe. The bowling ball, a crucial piece of equipment, has evolved throughout the years, raising the curiosity of many about the materials used in its construction.

Traditionally, bowling balls were made from dense hardwoods, such as Lignum vitae. In modern times, however, the materials have diversified to accommodate the varying styles and skill levels of players. Today’s bowling balls are typically made from a combination of reactive resin, urethane, or polyester covers and various core materials like resin or ceramics. These materials work together to influence factors like hook potential, durability, and overall performance on the bowling lanes.

History of Bowling Balls

Lignum Vitae

In the early history of bowling, balls were made of dense, heavy wood, specifically lignum vitae. Lignum vitae is a heartwood known for its toughness and resistance to wear. These wooden balls were used throughout the sport’s debut in Europe and continued as the primary material for bowling balls into the 19th and early 20th century in the United States. The weight and natural oiliness of lignum vitae made it a good choice for early bowling balls.

Rubber Bowling

The introduction of rubber bowling balls marked a significant development in the sport. In 1905, the Brunswick Corporation revolutionized the game with the invention of the first rubber Brunswick Mineralite bowling ball. Rubber balls had more consistent weight distribution and improved durability compared to wooden bowling balls. They also had more predictable ball motion and better grip on the lane due to their natural tackiness. These factors made rubber bowling balls the favored option for many years.

Plastic and Polyester

The next evolution in bowling ball materials came with the advent of plastic and polyester balls. In the 1950s and 1960s, companies like Ebonite and AMF began to produce polyester balls. Polyester allowed for a more consistent surface, retaining its shape better than rubber or wood. These balls were lighter in weight and produced a smoother roll on the lane, making them popular among bowlers seeking increased accuracy.

Plastic and polyester bowling balls soon became the standard for entry-level and casual bowlers. However, they had limitations when it came to lane conditions and hook potential. As technology advanced, manufacturers began to experiment with varying amounts of reactive resins, particle materials, and urethane to create balls that offered better grip and hook potential on the lane for more advanced bowlers. Today, bowling balls are made using a blend of materials to cater to different skill levels, styles, and lane conditions.

Materials and Composition

Coverstock Materials

Bowling balls are made up of two main components: the coverstock and the core. The coverstock is the outer layer of the ball, which interacts with the lane surface. There are several materials commonly used in coverstocks, each with its own properties and performance characteristics.

  • Rubber: Rubber bowling balls were the first type of ball to be mass-produced. They have low friction and provide a consistent ball motion, making them a popular choice for beginners.

  • Urethane: This material replaced rubber as the industry standard in the 1980s. Urethane offers more traction and hook potential than rubber, due to its higher friction properties.

  • Reactive resin: Reactive resin coverstocks are made from urethane compounds mixed with microscopic additive particles. These additives increase the ball’s overall friction, resulting in increased ball motion and hook potential.

  • Particle coverstocks: These coverstocks are specifically designed to create more friction through the use of small particles, often ceramic or glass, mixed into the resin material.

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Core Materials and Designs

The core of a bowling ball greatly influences its overall performance. Cores are typically made from dense materials such as ceramic, resin, or high-density polyurethane foam. Different core designs affect a ball’s mass distribution, which in turn influence its hook potential, roll pattern, and other aspects of its motion.

  • Symmetrical core: A symmetrical core has a consistent shape and mass distribution throughout, resulting in an even weight distribution. This core design provides a predictable and smooth ball motion, favored by players who require a controlled ball reaction.

  • Asymmetrical cores: As the name implies, asymmetrical cores have an irregular shape and mass distribution. As a result, this core design generates greater hook potential and more complex ball motion. Advanced players often prefer asymmetrical cores for their versatility and increased angular ball reaction.

Within each core type, there are various shapes and designs that further modify the ball’s performance characteristics. These can range from simple spheres to more complex inner core structures that maximize certain aspects of the ball’s motion.

Liquid Resin and Filler

Liquid resin is used during the manufacturing process to fill gaps and bind the coverstock and core materials together. This filler material helps to ensure a consistent performance between different bowling balls and contributes to the overall durability of the final product. The density and composition of the liquid resin can also have subtle effects on the ball’s motion and overall performance.

Manufacturing Process

CAD and Mold Creation

Manufacturers use Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software to create a 3D model of the bowling ball’s core and coverstock. This helps them determine the ball’s desired weight, size, and performance characteristics. The CAD model ensures that the weight block and coverstock have the precise shape and dimensions necessary for optimal performance.

Once the design is finalized, a mold is created to match the CAD model’s specifications. The mold may be formed from metal or plastic, depending on the manufacturer’s preferences and needs.

Core and Coverstock Production

The core of a bowling ball, also known as the weight block, is made using a variety of materials, including dense filler materials and lightweight polymers. The filler material typically consists of resins or urethane-based compounds. The mixture of these materials influences the ball’s overall weight, balance, and performance.

The coverstock is the outer shell of the bowling ball, responsible for generating traction on the lane. Common coverstock materials include plastic, urethane, reactive resin, and particle combinations. Each material type offers varying levels of grip, allowing bowlers to choose a ball with the desired performance and feel.

During production, manufacturers pour the core and coverstock materials into the mold to create a bowling ball. The materials must be mixed accurately and evenly to ensure consistent quality and performance.

Drilling and Finishing

After the core and coverstock have been produced, the bowling ball undergoes a series of processes to prepare it for use. The manufacturer drills holes for the fingers and thumb, according to the customer’s specifications. Custom bowling balls can be tailored to the individual bowler’s grip and hand size, maximizing comfort and control on the lanes.

The surface of the bowling ball is then polished or sanded to achieve the desired finish. A shiny finish helps the ball glide more smoothly, while a sanded finish increases friction and grip on the lane. The pin, which marks the center of gravity, is usually hidden underneath the coverstock and acts as a reference point for drilling.

In conclusion, the manufacturing process of bowling balls involves a series of steps, from CAD design and mold creation to core and coverstock production, drilling, and finishing. The industry requires precision and attention to detail to produce high-quality, custom bowling balls for a wide range of skill levels and preferences.

Types of Bowling Balls

Performance Bowling Balls

Performance bowling balls are designed for advanced bowlers looking for optimal ball reaction. These balls often have complex core shapes that help create desired hook potential and ball motion. The core of a performance bowling ball is typically composed of dense materials, resulting in a high differential ratio. This allows for more aggressive shot reactions and improved pin action.

Urethane Bowling Balls

Urethane bowling balls are generally softer than other balls and offer a smoother, more controllable ball motion. These balls are made primarily of urethane and allow for consistent performance on both dry and oily lane conditions. They are best suited for bowlers who prefer a straight shot or those who are new to the sport.

  • Materials: urethane compound
  • Characteristics: smooth, controllable ball motion
  • Best for: beginners, straight shot preference

Reactive Resin Bowling Balls

Reactive resin bowling balls are created with a resin material that increases hook potential, while maintaining control. The reactive resin cover stock enhances the ball’s grip on the lane, generating more friction and sharper break points. These balls are ideal for bowlers searching for a strong, forceful reaction and improved pin carry.

  • Materials: reactive resin cover stock
  • Characteristics: increased hook potential, improved grip
  • Best for: medium to advanced skill level

Plastic Bowling Balls

Plastic bowling balls are the most basic type of ball and often used by beginners or as spare balls for more advanced players. Their composition is predominantly plastic, resulting in a low hook potential and a very straight ball motion. Plastic bowling balls are typically more affordable, making them ideal for beginners and recreational players.

  • Materials: primarily plastic
  • Characteristics: low hook potential, straight motion
  • Best for: beginners, spare balls

Hybrid Reactive Bowling Balls

Hybrid reactive bowling balls are made with a mix of reactive resin and particle materials, combining the benefits of both types. This composition provides the increased hook potential of reactive resin balls, while the particle materials add enhanced traction on various lane conditions. These balls are versatile and suitable for bowlers looking for a balance between power and control.

  • Materials: mix of reactive resin and particle materials
  • Characteristics: increased hook potential, versatile performance
  • Best for: intermediate to advanced skill level

Particle Bowling Balls

Particle bowling balls are engineered with microscopic particles infused into the cover stock. These particles increase the ball’s surface friction, resulting in greater hook potential and improved grip on the lane. Particle bowling balls perform well on oily lane conditions and are favored by bowlers looking to maximize their hook and backend reaction.

  • Materials: particle-infused cover stock
  • Characteristics: high hook potential, increased surface friction
  • Best for: advanced players, oily lane conditions

Ball Performance Factors

Hook Potential

Hook potential is a key factor in determining a bowling ball’s performance. The hook potential indicates the amount of curve a ball can achieve when rolling down the lane, which is influenced by the ball’s coverstock material and surface texture. Generally, balls with a high hook potential have a stronger coverstock and a rougher surface, allowing them to grip the lane better and create greater ball motion.

Friction and Traction

Friction and traction are essential factors that impact a bowling ball’s performance. The interaction between a ball’s coverstock and the oil on the lane plays a significant role in its motion. Coverstocks with high friction and traction properties tend to have a more aggressive hook and overall motion. Sanded coverstocks provide more traction than polished ones. A ball with a high friction and traction may be ideal for oil patterns with more oil on the lane, while a polished ball with less friction might be better suited for dry lane conditions.

Oil Patterns and Lane Conditions

Lane conditions are diverse and vary based on the amount and pattern of oil applied to the lane. Oil patterns can be light or heavy, and the way the oil is laid can change the amount of friction a ball encounters. A ball with a sanded coverstock and high hook potential may be more effective with heavy oil patterns, as it can better grip the lane and navigate through the oil.

However, on dry lane conditions, a ball with high traction may overreact and cause erratic ball motion. In such scenarios, a ball with a polished coverstock and lower traction might be more suitable, as it will glide more smoothly on the lane surface without overhooking.

Understanding and adjusting to these variations in lane conditions can significantly impact a bowler’s performance and results.

Choosing the Right Bowling Ball

Weight and Size

When selecting a bowling ball, it’s crucial to choose the correct weight and size. The weight of a bowling ball typically ranges from 6 to 16 pounds, and the ideal weight will depend on the individual’s strength, skill, and bowling style. On average, men will use a ball ranging from 12 to 16 pounds, while women typically utilize a ball weighing between 10 and 14 pounds. Children and senior bowlers often use lighter balls. It’s essential to choose a ball weight that allows the bowler to maintain proper technique and avoid injury.

The size of a bowling ball specifically refers to the circumference and the diameter of the finger holes. To ensure a comfortable grip, a ball should have finger holes drilled according to the measurements of the bowler’s hand. A comfortable fit can improve the overall experience and success in the sport of pin bowling.

Skill Level

Selecting a bowling ball that matches the bowler’s skill level is an essential part of the process. Generally, bowling balls are categorized into three skill levels:

  1. Entry-level: These balls are perfect for beginners and practice sessions. With a simple construction designed for straight shots, they are an excellent option for targeting spares.
  2. Mid-performance: This category is suitable for slightly more experienced bowlers and is ideal for those who have developed a basic understanding of hooking a ball.
  3. High-performance: Aimed at advanced bowlers with a higher rev rate, high-performance balls have specialized cores and coverstock additives to create desired reactions on different lane conditions.

Bowling Style

The bowling style of an individual is a crucial factor when selecting a bowling ball. Bowlers have different rev rates (rotation speed) and styles, which can influence how the ball behaves on the alley.

  • Low-rev bowlers: They generally benefit from a ball with more aggressive coverstocks like reactive resin, which enables the ball to grip the lane and create a strong back-end reaction in the pocket.
  • High-rev bowlers: These bowlers should opt for a ball with a smoother reaction to maintain control and avoid overreaction on the backend. A urethane or milder reactive resin ball is often a suitable choice.

Understanding one’s bowling style and selecting appropriate equipment can significantly improve their performance on the lanes and play a significant role in their success in the sport of pin bowling.

Advanced Bowling Ball Technology

Glass Microbubbles

Innovative technology in the bowling industry has led to the development of glass microbubbles. This unique material is incorporated into the coverstock of bowling balls to enhance performance. Glass microbubbles are microscopic hollow spheres that, when added to the coverstock, create a lighter, more porous surface. This results in an increased ball reaction and improved friction with the lane, leading to better pin action.

Asymmetrical Core Designs

Asymmetrical core designs are another advancement in bowling ball technology. These cores feature uneven mass distribution, which affects the overall ball motion. Unlike traditional symmetrical cores, which have an equal mass distribution, asymmetrical cores create an imbalance that influences how a ball reacts when thrown. Bowlers can take advantage of these core designs to alter ball trajectories and increase hook potential, providing them with more control and strategy during competition.

Improved Coverstock Materials

Coverstock materials play a crucial role in bowling ball performance. The latest technological advances have led to the development of improved coverstock materials that offer greater durability, more consistent reactions, and improved pin action. Some of these innovations include:

  • Reactive Resin: This type of coverstock material contains additives that increase the friction between the ball and the lane. Reactive resin offers improved hook potential and more aggressive ball motion, making it popular among professional bowlers.
  • Particle Coverstocks: These coverstocks have tiny, evenly distributed particles embedded in their surface. The particles create additional friction, enabling the ball to grip the lane more effectively, resulting in enhanced hook and greater pin action.
  • Hybrid Coverstocks: Hybrid coverstocks are created by combining the properties of reactive resin and particle coverstocks. This combination offers bowlers the best of both worlds, providing a versatile option with a consistent reaction on a range of lane conditions.

By embracing these advanced technologies, the bowling industry continues to push the boundaries of bowling ball performance, allowing bowlers to optimize their game and enjoy the sport to its fullest potential.

Bowling Ball Maintenance

Cleaning and Care

Bowling balls require regular cleaning and care to maintain their performance and longevity. It is essential to clean the ball after each use to remove dirt, oil, and other debris that can accumulate on the surface. Some common cleaning methods include:

  • Hand Cleaning: Using a clean, damp cloth, gently remove any visible dirt and oil from the surface of the ball. Make sure to wipe the entire ball and avoid using harsh chemicals.

  • Ball Cleaner: Many bowlers prefer to use a specialized ball cleaner to ensure thorough cleaning. These cleaners are designed to remove dirt and oil without damaging the ball’s surface.

When cleaning, it is essential to avoid using any abrasive materials, such as steel wool or sandpaper, which can cause damage to the ball. It is also crucial to dry the ball thoroughly after cleaning.

Resurfacing and Polishing

Over time, bowling balls may develop scratches, scuffs, and other surface imperfections, which can impact their performance. Resurfacing and polishing the ball can help restore its original finish and enhance its overall performance.

  • Resurfacing: Resurfacing involves removing a thin layer of material from the ball’s surface to even out any imperfections. This process can be done using sandpaper or abrasive pads with varying grit levels. The ball should be resurfaced in consistent, circular motions, and the process should be repeated with different grits of sandpaper or abrasive pads until the desired finish is achieved.

  • Polishing: After resurfacing, the ball might have a dull appearance. Polishing can help restore the ball’s shine and enhance its performance on the lanes. Bowlers can use a specialized polish or a fine-grit abrasive pad to polish the ball gently.

Proper maintenance of hardwood bowling balls includes regular cleaning, resurfacing, and polishing. By following these guidelines, bowlers can ensure that their bowling balls remain in optimal condition and continue to provide consistent performance on the lanes.

Popular Bowling Ball Brands


is one of the most popular brands for bowling ball enthusiasts. Established in 2008, this brand is well-known for its innovative designs, eye-catching colors, and exceptional performance on the lanes. Motiv has grown over the years and now offers a broad variety of bowling balls for players of all skill levels, from beginners to professionals.


Another go-to brand for avid bowlers is Storm. Since its inception in 1991, Storm has maintained a strong reputation for its high-quality bowling balls and exceptional customer service. Storm’s dedication to research and development of new materials and designs has made them a standard-bearer in the bowling industry. As a result, many players proudly sport their Storm bowling balls, and several bowling alleys use Storm products for their rental ball selections.


is another big name in the world of bowling, offering a wide range of bowling balls to fit every bowler’s unique style and needs. Hammer is most popular for their urethane coverstocks, which provide a smooth, controlled reaction on the lanes that many bowlers prefer. Decades of experience have led Hammer to become a popular choice for bowlers worldwide.


Additionally, Brunswick is a well-known and respected brand in the bowling industry. With over a century of experience, Brunswick offers high-quality bowling balls with various design options, suitable for both casual bowlers and professionals alike. Brunswick’s continuous investment in technology and product innovation has endeared them to bowlers of all ages and skill levels, strengthening their presence in bowling alleys around the globe.

Columbia 300

Lastly, Columbia 300 is a reputable brand for bowling balls, known for its commitment to creating products that cater to diverse bowlers’ needs. Offering a wide selection of bowling balls with varying characteristics and designs, Columbia 300 has managed to capture the attention of bowlers globally, making them a sought-after choice in many bowling alleys.

In summary, Motiv, Storm, Hammer, Brunswick, and Columbia 300 are some of the most popular bowling ball brands, known for their quality and performance on the lanes. These brands are commonly found in bowling alleys worldwide and offer bowlers an excellent selection to meet their individual preferences and requirements.

What Are Bowling Balls made of?

Many different materials are used to make bowling balls in modern days, but plastic and polyester are the most popular. This is because plastic bowling balls are more pleasant to use as spares, delivering straight-line strikes. Because of their lower coefficient of friction, these balls ran into many issues in the 1970s.

It will have a more excellent range of movement. The weight of 15 lbs. is presently used in the design and engineering of bowling balls. They do this so that your unique strength will reduce.

Suppose you go from a 14 to a 16 or vice versa. This is understandable, given the increased popularity of 15-pound balls in recent years.

Hydraulic cement (Portland cement) must make up most of the ball’s composition (at least 60%). No ready-to-use or pre-mixed concrete is permitted.

A faster shot provides more pin action, but the shot has less time to react to the lane, which results in less hook. On the other hand, a slower shot will hook more often, but it will cost you some pin action in the process.

While a broken bridge is alright, as long as the ball isn’t in there, you want to steer clear of a cracked bridge altogether. The bowling alley’s rear end, as well as other players on your pair, will be inconvenienced as the cover begins to fall apart.